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Stone Terminology

Gang Sawed

Description of the granular surface of stone resulting from gangsawing alone.�


Gauged or Gauging

A grinding process to make all pieces of material to be used together the same thickness.�


Glass Seam

Description of a narrow glass-like streak occurring in stone; a joint plane that has been re-cemented by deposition of translucent calcite in the crack and is structurally sound.�


Grade Course

Beginning course at the grade level, generally waterproofed with a dampcheck or damp course.�



The easiest cleavage direction in a stone. "With the grain" same as "natural bed". Also, particles (crystals, sand grains, etc.) of a rock.�



A fine to coarse-grained, igneous rock formed by volcanic action consisting of quartz, feldspar, and mica, with accessory minerals. Granite-type rocks include those of similar texture and origin.granite (scientific definition) a visibly granular, crystalline rock of predominantly interlocking texture, composed essentially of alkalic feldspars and quartz; this is true granite. Feldspar is generally present in excess of quartz, and accessory minerals (chiefly micas, hornblende, or more rarely pyroxene) are commonly present. The alkalic feldspars may be present (1) as individual mineral species, (2) as isomorphous or mechanical intergrowths with each other, or (3) as chemical intergrowths with the lime feldspar molecule, but 80 + 3% of the feldspar must be composed of the potash or soda feldspar molecules.�


Granite (commercial/building use)

A term that includes granite (as defined above), gneiss, gneissic granite, granite gneiss, and the rock species known to petrologists as syenite, monzonite, and granodiorite, species intermediate between them, the gneissic varieties and gneisses of corresponding mineralogic compositions and the corresponding varieties of porphyritic textures. The term commercial granite shall also include other feldspathic crystalline rocks of similar textures, containing minor amounts of accessory minerals, used for special decorative purposes, and known to petrologists as anorthosite and laurvikite.�


Granite Gneiss

A foliated crystalline rock composed essentially of silicate minerals with interlocking and visibly granular texture, and in which the foliation is due primarily to alternating layers, regular or irregular, of contrasting mineralogic composition. In general a gneiss is characterized by relatively thick layers as compared with a schist. According to their mineralogic compositions, gneisses may correspond to other rocks of crystalline, visibly granular, interlocking texture, such as those included under the definition of commercial granite, and may then be known as granite gneiss if strongly foliated, or gneissic granite if weakly foliated.�


Black Granite

Rock species known to petrologists as diabase, diorite, gabbro, and intermediate varieties are sometimes quarried as building stone, chiefly for ornamental use, and sold as "black granite". As dimension blocks or slabs, they are valued specifically for their dark grey to black color when polished. Scientifically, they are far removed in composition from true granites though they may be satisfactory used for some of the purposes to which commercial granites, are adapted. They possess an interlocking crystalline texture, but unlike granites, they contain little or no quartz or alkalic feldspar, and are characterized by an abundance of one or more of the common black rock-forming minerals (chiefly pyroxenes, hornblende, and biotite).�



Having a texture characterized by particles that are apparent to the unaided eye. For sedimentary rocks; particles less than 4 inches (10 mm) in diameter and approximately equal in size.�



Includes stones that have been metamorphosed or otherwise changed so that they have assumed a distinctive greenish color owing to the presence of one or more of the following minerals: chlorite, epidote, or actinolite.�



Pourable cementitious material. COARSE GROUT, used for wide grout spaces 2" or more, consists of one part Portland cement, two-and-a-quarter to three parts sand, and one to two parts pea gravel. FINE GROUT, used in narrow grout spaces, consists of one part Portland cement and two-and-a-quarter to three parts sand.�������


White Spring

Yellow River

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